Spraker Wealth Management Financial Planning Corner
Second Set of Eyes Eric Walter, Paraplanner
For our analysis work, we have at least one other team member review the methodology, results, and conclusions to minimize errors and take full advantage of planning opportunities for clients. When we receive your financial planning documents (i.e. estate plans, insurance policies, and tax returns), we thoroughly review them before giving advice. The impact of these additional checks is often hard to quantify but usually there are “big dollars” involved. Let me give you some recent examples.
Tax Returns have many moving parts and just one mistake can be costly. One of the common errors is with Qualified Charitable Distributions (QCDs), which are tax-free IRA distributions paid directly to a qualified charity. The issue stems from the provided tax form, the 1099-R, not distinguishing/differentiating the QCD amount. You must let your tax preparer know AND provide copies of the checks written to the nonprofits. If filed improperly, this can lead to a substantial tax overpayment. Just this year we have identified errors leading to nearly $3,000 in additional tax refunds for our clients.
Many of us have purchased an Insurance Policy, set up automatic payments, and never looked at it again. After discussions of specific coverage needs with several clients, some discovered they were actually over-insured. We reviewed the pros & cons of reducing the benefit or canceling the policies. Several clients chose to keep their long-term care policies but reduce potential premium increases by changing the mix of benefits. Another cancelled the life insurance policy they no longer needed. These risk planning sessions will save thousands in premium payments over their lifetimes.
Estate Planning is meant to ensure your wishes are followed during incapacity and after death. The biggest gaps we usually find are no named successor trustees, guardians, or contingent beneficiaries (2nd and 3rd person(s) in line). It can be a tough decision, which often leads to no decision. Then, a difficult estate settlement can loom during already stressful times. We have assisted several clients this year with their options and helped them reach a final decision so the attorneys and custodians could complete the estate plans. By setting specific directives and designating beneficiaries for ALL assets, the onus is taken off loved ones and unnecessary costly expenses are avoided.
By providing us with your Financial Planning documents, we are able to discuss issues and provide perspectives you may not have considered. Our second set of eyes may even find some extra money for you, too!
Financial Planning Corner: Use Tax Reduction Strategies for 2019 NOW! Eric Walter, Paraplanner
There are few options left at this late date to reduce 2018 taxes. If you start 2019 tax planning now, there are many more. The IRS hopes to collect as much tax revenue as they can from each of us. Our plan should be to pay as little as legally possible. Some common strategies to torpedo their goal and realize ours are:
Maximize allowable contributions to retirement and health savings accounts. This decreases taxable income. Annual limits have increased so ensure your contributions have too!
Itemize to see if your deductions exceed the standard. Keep receipts for charitable gifts, business expenses, and medical & dental expenses. If possible, make an extra mortgage payment. Within limits, most or all of the interest can be deducted. If itemization isn’t a benefit, consider increasing your annual donations or gifting larger amounts on an every-other year basis. For instance, instead of $10,000 annually to charity, give $20,000 bi-annually if this allows you to itemize for those years.
Gift appreciated securities to charities and loved ones in lower tax brackets, and strategize with your advisor to sell depreciated securities to offset any realized gains (tax-loss harvesting)
Delay taking Social Security until age 70. This decreases taxable income at the beginning of retirement possibly allowing ROTH conversions. These allow tax-deferred account positions to be moved to a tax-free account. Future withdrawals, including reinvested gains, will be tax-free. Additionally, until age 70, your Social Security benefit will increase at an 8% compound return producing higher income when you may need it more.
If in a lower tax bracket, withdraw more than your IRA Required Minimum Distribution. Tax rates could increase again. Make sure to consider the ramifications on your taxable Social Security.
Self-employed individuals are eligible for many additional deductions such as a qualifying home office, business related vehicle mileage, advertising, website fees, and travel expenses. If you pay 100% of your Social Security taxes, you can deduct 50% without itemizing.
Always discuss with your CPA or tax-preparer these and all other strategies.
Client Services Corner: Health & Wealth: The Beauty of Sleep Kelly Trocki
Last quarter, I asked what you are doing to keep your brain healthy and sharp? Unfortunately, I had only 3 replies, but they were motivating. Joni stretches her mind with biographies and history books, currently reading Einstein by Walter Isaacson. Tom S. plays racquetball 3 times a week, walks 6 days, and works part-time for the FL Geological Survey. Tom G had a heart attack 25 years ago and claims it was an unintended blessing. (NOTE: He did not have the usual risk criteria.) Tom plays tennis and works out daily, and meets once a week with a group of retired professionals to discuss the problems of the world, sports, politics, family, and health. Last but not least, he enjoys going out to dinner with his wife and friends.
Another factor to consider in our quest for a healthy, sharp brain is adequate sleep. A lack of it is a significant contributor to dementia and memory loss. It causes brain fog, making it difficult to concentrate and make decisions. You may start to feel “down” and fall asleep during the day. These symptoms ultimately can lead to obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, and diabetes.
Daytime confusion and memory loss are known symptoms of sleep apnea; people with the condition often stir hundreds of times a night (without fully waking) and are tired and forgetful the next day. A New York University study of Alzheimer’s patients found those with breathing problems were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment an average of 10 years earlier than people without.
By following the tips from the National Institute on Aging (https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/good-nights-sleep) you may sleep better, boost your health, and improve how you think and feel.
Follow a regular sleep schedule. Go to sleep and get up at the same time each day, even on weekends and when traveling.
Avoid napping in the late afternoon or evening. Naps may keep you awake at bedtime.
Develop a calm bedtime routine. Relax. Read a book. Enjoy soothing music. Soak in a warm bath.
Don’t watch T.V. or use your computer, cell phone, or tablet in the bedroom. “Blue light” inhibits sleep. Avoid unsettling movies.
Keep your bedroom quiet and at a comfortable temperature, not too hot or too cold.
Use low lighting as you prepare for bed.
Exercise at regular times each day but not within 3 hours of your bedtime.
Avoid eating large meals close to bedtime - interferes with the body winding down.
Stay away from caffeine late in the day. found in coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate
Alcohol won’t help you sleep. Even small amounts make it harder to stay asleep.
Mindfulness meditation. The more we force sleep, the less likely to achieve it.
Thank you for those who shared what they do to sustain good brain and body health. If you're inspired, email me what YOU do to keep your mind sharp and I’ll share that next quarter.
Noise, Pullbacks, Corrections and Bears Susan Spraker, CFP®
Although Investments is just one integral part of total financial planning and wealth management, it stands center stage more often than Estate Planning, Tax Planning, Risk Management and Asset Protection Planning. Unlike probate costs, income taxes, home depreciation, healthcare costs, and risk taking, portfolio values can be watched daily, even by the minute. The Age of Instant Information and nearly 9 years of uninterrupted stock market recovery against the backdrop of the 2008-2009 Great Global Recession keep investors on edge. Though we hate taxes and depreciation and rising healthcare costs, they feel both boring and out of control when, in fact, they are excellent areas for planning to minimize losses.
As we age, losses are harder to emotionally withstand even when they are only paper losses and even though we have years of life expectancy. We don’t have as many years to retrace the price curve up-even though the curve down could be short-lived and a great buying opportunity, regardless of age. When we retire, we don’t have the earned income to supplement portfolio income, and aren’t adding to the portfolio (usually). Add the current global political uncertainty discussed in Macroeconomic View and it’s a good time to discuss “losing” and “losses.”
First and foremost, investment losses and gains don’t occur until they are taken or “realized.” A paper loss isn’t a “real” loss unless we cash out of the investment while its value is down from the amount invested, “realizing the loss.” A paper gain isn’t “real” until we cash out and take or “realize the gain.” Successful portfolio management involves buying on downturns (good companies share prices on sale) and selling to take good profits (not being greedy during upturns and having money to further diversify). Unfortunately, the average individual investor is unsuccessful because they do the opposite. They buy more when stocks are performing very well, buying more at higher prices, “piling in” with everyone else reading all the happy bandwagon headlines, not wanting to miss out on a good thing. These same investors sell when the market is going down, sometimes liquidating entire portfolios at the bottom of corrections or in the middle of a bear market. This behavior was rampant during the tech bubble and bust and more recently during the housing boom that was then followed by the global credit crisis that led to the Great Recession. Literally billions were being invested at the top when we were selling in 2007 and 2008; and billions were being sold while we were buying at the bottom of the market in March 2009. It took guts and understanding the macroeconomic environment…and it paid off.
Digging deeper to understand markets and “losses,” a NORMAL MARKET CYCLE INCLUDES PULLBACKS AND CORRECTIONS. Price movements in the 0%-5% range is common statistical noise. Right now we are getting a tremendous amount of statistical noise. Beyond 5%, there are three types of market downturns which when understood will lead to better investment decisions and portfolio management. A pullback is a 5%-10% market drop; a correction is a 10%-20% drop; a bear market is a 20%+ drop.
Noise and pullbacks need to be ignored unless you are a day trader. The reason is because they are short-lived and it’s almost impossible to buy back in at anything other than higher prices than the sells. Portfolio decisions during a correction are a function of risk tolerance, income needs, capital needs, and time horizon. Long-term investors with truly diversified portfolios, especially with portfolios that exceed the capital needed for life expectancy, as well as portfolios being added to, should use corrections as opportunities to buy more of oversold, well-run companies.
One of the disappointments during the past few years has been the whipsaw nature of pullbacks and lack of time to buy more. We have lamented in the Commentary how we look forward to a long overdue correction as an opportunity to buy more of good funds and etfs.
Clients who cannot tolerate corrections are by definition risk averse and should be in our most conservative Growth & Income model, less than 50% stock exposure. So when stocks are down 10%-20%, those portfolios should be down maybe 6%-12% depending on what’s happening with bonds. Aggressive clients by definition should be unconcerned with both corrections and bear markets. It’s the Growth clients, whose portfolios have less than 65% stocks, who generally want to have most of the up and little of the down. Even though those portfolios are positioned to avoid at least a third of a correction, a Growth portfolio by definition means most of the money is invested for the long haul (more than 5-7 years), with more than a third for the short haul (2-4 years).
We asked Kyron to conduct a totally nonscientific analysis of the portfolios we manage, choosing a typical one from each of the 3 models for the period January 26 through March 29, from the stock market price peak to the end of the quarter. The only criteria was that the client could not have added nor taken out any money during this 1st Quarter 2018 on which we are reporting. The question was, given all the volatility AND the correction that John reported in Markets and Trading, how much did our respective portfolios decline? As we (your Investment Committee) expected, here’s the performance of our managed portfolios: Aggressive Growth: -5%; Growth: -4%; Growth & Income: -3.2%; S&P 500: -8.1%.
We look forward to discussing how YOUR portfolio performed during this and other periods. Of course, cash flows in and out will have an impact on performance. For instance, if you added money to your portfolio and wanted it to be invested immediately during market highs, that portion of your portfolio would be down compared to someone with the same portfolio who withdrew the same amount at those highs. Regardless, the main lesson is that whatever the Dow 30 Industrials performance is today, whatever the S&P 500 has racked up (or down) for the day/week/quarter, whatever the NASDAQ has plummeted or skyrocketed, your portfolio is performing differently because it is being professionally managed to garner as much of the upside and as little of the downside as possible, given its objective.
Is your portfolio positioned in the right model for your risk tolerance? What is your life expectancy? What percent of your portfolio do you need in the next 5 years? Let’s discuss these and more factors in your next portfolio and planning session. Let’s also review your tax return, your estate plan, your car depreciation, and your health care costs – all areas in which you may be experiencing unnecessary losses.
Roth IRAs, Conversions and Recharacterizations Susan Spraker, CFP®
Traditional IRA contributions plus earnings (interest, dividends and capital gains) may compound tax-DEFERRED until you withdraw them. Within limits, contributions may be tax deductible. There is a penalty for withdrawal before age 59.5 unless an exception applies. Contributions that were deducted from ordinary income as well as all earnings that grew tax-deferred are taxed as ordinary income in the year received. Contributions that were not deductible may be withdrawn tax free since they were after tax contributions. Tax-deferred earnings that are withdrawn are taxed as ordinary income.
Roth IRAs grow tax FREE as long as the account is at least 5 years old and the owner is at least 59.5. Contributions must meet IRS income requirements and may not be deducted from ordinary income.
With the recent tax law changes effective January 1, 2018, recharacterization of Roth conversions has been eliminated except for 2017 conversions. Those still may be recharacterized to any traditional IRA up to tax filing plus extension to October 15, 2018. This date is a firm deadline by which the entire process must have been completed. It is not just the date by which paperwork must be filed for a recharacterization. There are exceptions, for instance, a 401k converted to a Roth may not be recharacterized back to the plan. It would need to go to a traditional IRA.
Roth contributions are not affected by the new tax law and still may be recharacterized back to a traditional IRA. Reasons to recharacterize 2017 Roth IRA conversions include if the Roth is worth less than when it was converted. Why pay income tax this year on a converted IRA that has lost value? Put it back in the IRA at the lower value and pay lower tax. Another reason for choosing recharacterization is if the taxpayer is in a higher tax bracket than anticipated; if the recharacterization causes Social Security to be taxed; or, if total income exceeded limits allowing Roth contributions.
If you converted an IRA last year to a Roth AND you have not filed your 2017 tax return, it is important to consult with your CPA NOW. You still have time because the deadline for contribution recharacterization is tax filing plus extension of the year following the contribution year. You can also start discussing the effect of converting THIS year an existing IRA to a Roth IRA, if it is allowed and beneficial for you. Tax consequences to Social Security, any Medicare premiums, and the 3.8% net investment income surtax, as well as tax deductions and credits must be considered.
Conversions can get complicated as well as costly. Don’t forget the CPA hourly fee to determine all these ramifications of conversions and recharacterizations but it is definitely worth asking about each year.
Financial Planning Corner: The New Retirement Eric Walter, Paraplanner
Saving and systematic investing have always been such a significant focus of Retirement Planning that it can be an overwhelming emotional shift to start withdrawing from a portfolio. One of the hardest decisions choosing an ideal withdrawal rate to feel fulfilled now but not impair future solvency.
The withdrawal rate best for you and your portfolio depends on many factors, including downward pressure on stock prices. As discussed in many recent editions of our Macroeconomic View and Outlook, volatility in the aging global stock market recovery is increasing and can prevent portfolios from maintaining their values for a period of time. This risk increases with portfolio withdrawals during corrections, especially if made at the same pace as when markets are up. The risk is even greater for new retirees.
Retirement researcher Wade Pfau simulated this risk in a 2018 study, Two Bad Years, Two Different Outcomes. He assumed “…a 30-year retirement and an average annual return of 3%, and a new retiree with $1 million who decides to withdraw 5% a year. If the portfolio declines 15% in the first and second years of retirement, the retiree is out of money by year 21. If the retiree saw the same decline of 15% in years 29 and 30, they would still have $364,000.” Depending on the size of your portfolio, your spending vs. fixed income (pension, social security, part-time income) and your longevity, making NO withdrawals when the market is down could be a significant portfolio risk reduction strategy. This leads to the question every retiree faces: How much can I/we withdraw now to have what is needed and wanted but not run out of money in later years?
Other recent research supports varying your withdrawal rate. The old “4% Rule” is just that, old…and outdated. There are too many variables for a one-size-fits-all approach. One thing is for sure. We have to plan on living longer. “In the 1950s, people retiring at age 65 lived until 78. Today’s retirees can expect an average lifespan of 83 or 84 years – which means that half of (us) will live much longer than that.” (Kathleen Coxwell, 2017, What Are the New Rules of Retirement? 10 Guidelines for Financial Security) Indeed, we have clients in their 90s in good health, enjoying their lifestyles. As long as you are in good health, solid financial planning should include portfolios lasting into your 90s.
The Center for Retirement Research (CRR), using Required Minimum Distribution formulas, recommends the following withdrawal rates based on life expectancy: ages:60s: 3-3.5%; 70s: 3.5%-5%; 80s: 5%-8%; 90s: 9%-15%.
Determining your ideal withdrawal rate should be part of your annual financial planning review. It’s important to find a balance between being so conservative you struggle financially and the risk of running out of money. Please contact Eric at email@example.com to request the forms for us to start work on your financial plan.
Spraker Wealth Management Financial Planning Corner - Education Planning Eric Walter, Paraplanner
If you wish to contribute to your school age child’s/grandchild’s education, those expenses should be part of your financial plan. Considerations include the child’s age, years to attend, cost, plan tax efficiency for you and them, control of assets, etc. Contributions to plans are not federally tax deductible but some plans have state specific income tax deductions. Contributions also count toward annual gifting limits- $15k per person. All information provided as of tax year 2018.
529 Savings (529 Plans) & Prepaid Tuition Plans (Prepaid Plans)
Coverdell Education Savings Accounts (ESAs)
Uniform Gifts (UGMAs) & Transfers (UTMAs) to Minors Acts
Series EE (EE Bonds) & I (I Bonds) Savings Bonds
Beneficiary May be Changed:
YES: 529 & Prepaid Plans, Coverdell ESAs, EE & I Bonds
NO: UGMAs & UTMAs
YES (Timing of deposits may affect.): 529 & Prepaid Plans, Coverdell ESAs, UGMAs & UTMAs
NO: EE & I Bonds
Financial Aid Calculation Impact:
GRANDPARENT OWNS: No- in year distributed; Yes- in year after distributed
PARENT OWNS: Yes
CHILD OWNS: Yes
Note: For more information contact the Federal Student Aid Information Center at 1-800-433-3243 or visit studentaid.ed.gov.
Ownership (control of distributions):
ADULT UNTIL BECOMES CHILD: UGMAs 18-21 & UTMAs 18-25
ADULT OR CHILD: 529 & Prepaid Plans, Coverdell ESAs, EE & I Bonds
YES (lifetime): 529 & Prepaid Plans (Ranges by state plan from $250k and up.)
YES (annual): Coverdell ESAs ($2k per child), EE Bonds (electronic only- $10k) & I Bonds
(electronic- $10k & paper- $5k)- may buy all 3 up to individual limits
NO: UGMAs & UTMAs
Income Limitations to Contribute:
YES: Coverdell ESAs (AGI phase out: single $95k-$110k & married filing jointly $190k-$220k)
NO: 529 & Prepaid Plans, UGMAs & UTMAs, EE & I Bonds
YES: 529 Plans, Coverdell ESAs, UGMAs & UTMAs
MAYBE (guaranteed & non-guaranteed vehicles): 529 Plans, Coverdell ESAs, UGMAs & UTMAs
NO: Prepaid Plans (simply tuition credits), EE Bonds (fixed rate*), I Bonds (fixed rate + inflation
*5/1/18 – 10/31/18 issue @0.10%, compounded semiannually
**5/1/18 – 10/31/18 issue @2.52% (fixed @0.30% + semiannual inflation
Taxation of Annual Interest, Dividends, &/or Capital Gains:
TAX-DEFERRED: EE &I Bonds (Must elect deferral.), 529 & Prepaid Plans, Coverdell ESAs
TAXABLE: UGMAs & UTMAs (at “Kiddie Tax*” rate)
*First $1,050 tax-free per child under age 19 or 24 if student (not per account), $1,051-$2,100 child’s rate, $2,101+ parent’s rate.
Taxation of Capital Distributions:
TAX-FREE (qualified expenses within limits): EE & I Bonds* (if owner is married, must file joint
return), 529 & Prepaid Plans, Coverdell ESAs
TAXABLE: UGMAs & UTMAs (at “Kiddie Tax” rate)
*Must purchase at age 24+ for tax exclusion.
Note: Always speak with your CPA for state specific tax information.
YES: Coverdell ESAs (by child’s age 30*), EE & I Bonds (Redeem same year as expense.), UGMAs
(18-21) & UTMAs (18-25)- state specific ages; may transfer to 529 Plan as cash
NO: 529 & Prepaid Plans; may roll to family member, i.e. siblings, cousins, in-laws, etc.
Qualified Expenses for Plan Disbursement:
PREPAID PLANs: tuition & fees, some cover room & board
529 PLANs: tuition & fees, room & board, books & supplies, required equipment (may be used for K-12 or private school expenses, state specific, up to $10k per year)
COVERDELL ESAs: tuition & fees, room & board, books & supplies, required
equipment (may be used for K-12 or private school expenses)
EE & I BONDs: tuition & fees, such as laboratory and other required course expenses- room &
board and books not included
UGMAs & UTMAs: No requirement to use for educational expenses.